Center for Open Access in Science (COAS)
ISSN (Online) 2560-5380 *


2019 - Volume 3 - Number 2

Creativity as a Miniature of a Boundary Situation

Petar Radoev Dimkov * * ORCID: 0000-0003-4368-9015 * ResearcherID: C-2915-2019
South-West University “Neofit Rilski”, Faculty of Philosophy, Blagoevgrad, BULGARIA

Open Journal for Studies in Philosophy, 2019, 3(2), 37-44 *
Online Published Date: 29 October 2019

LICENCE: Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.

ARTICLE (Full Text - PDF)

KEY WORDS: Karl Jaspers, boundary situation, miniature, creativity, stress, third thought process, philosophy, psychology.

Recently, I have introduced the notion of a miniature of a boundary situation (Dimkov, 2018). It views the process of creativity as a miniature of a boundary situation, in which the ideas of Karl Jaspers and Sigmund Freud are combined. Thus, the miniature represents a problem-solving situation via the means of a regression in the name of the ego or a third thought process (Dimkov, 2016). In such situations of creativity, one is forging a new worldview or a Weltanschauung by discovering new knowledge. The third thought process, as well as the miniature of the boundary situation, can be experienced only inward and subjectively by personal immersion in the situation, they lie outside the scope of objectification and they receive meaning only from a concrete personality and a concrete miniature situation, but their product is objective, it is a creative product. In this sense, heuristic methods do fail in boundary situations. Moderate stress is inherent to the boundary situation, the phenomenon of flow (Csikszentmihalyi, 2013) and its miniature, in which quantitative accumulations lead to qualitative changes, laying on a single continuum. Such a continuum is constructed nowadays in phenomenological psychiatry. In conclusion, the creative process viewed as moderate stress represents an intellectualizing of the miniature of a boundary situation or a sublimation.

Petar Radoev Dimkov, Faculty of Philosophy, South-West University “Neofit Rislki”, 66 Ivan Mihaylov Street, Blagoevgrad 2700 BULGARIA. E-mail:


Ara, R. (1998). An elucidation of Jaspers’ concept of Existenz in the boundary situations. Ph.D. Thesis for Doctor of Philosophy in Philosophy, Department of Philosophy at the Aligarh Muslim University. Aligarh, India.

Bush, M. (1969). Psychoanalysis and Scientific Creativity: With special reference to regression in the service of the Ego. Journal of the American Psychoanalytic Association, 17(1), 136-190.

Csikszentmihalyi, M. (2013). Creativity: Flow and the psychology of discovery and invention. New York: Harper Perennial, Modern Classics.

Dimkov, P. (2015). A philosophical study of Freudian primary and secondary thought processes: Parallels of acute schizophrenic psychosis, psychedelic state, and mystical experience. MSc Thesis, unpublished. Osnabrück, Germany: Universität Osnabrück, FB 8 Humanwissenschaften, Institut für Kognitionswissenschaft (IKW).

Dimkov, P. (2016). Third thought process at the intersection of metapsychology, cognitive science and neuroscience. Philosophy Journal, 25(2), 186-202. [Димков, П. (2016). Третичният мисловен процес на кръстопътя на метапсихологията, когнитивната наука и невронауката. Философия, Vol. 25, No. 2, сс. 186-202].

Dimkov, P. (2018). The genius of creativity and the creativity of genius: The neuro-dynamics of creativity in Karl Jaspers and Sigmund Freud. Journal of Genius and Eminence, 3(1), 83-92.

Fuchs, T. (2013). Existential vulnerability: Toward a psychopathology of limit situation. Psychopathology, 46, 301-308.

Hoffman, K. (1981). The basic concepts of Jaspers’ philosophy. In: Paul A. Schilpp (Ed.), The philosophy of Karl Jaspers (pp. 95-112). New York: Tudor Publishing Company.

Jaspers, K. (1925/1960). Psychologie der Weltanschauungen. Berlin: Springer.

Jaspers, K. (1932/1970). Philosophy, Vol. 2: Existential Elucidation, E. Ashton (Trans.). Chicago, London: The University of Chicago Press.

Jaspers, K. (1951/1964). Way to wisdom: An introduction to philosophy, Ralph Manheim (Trans.). New Haven, London: Yale University Press.

Jaspers, K. (1959/1997). General psychopathology, J. Hoenig & Marian W. Hamilton (Trans.). London: The John Hopkins University Press.

Joffe, J., & Peterson, C. (1981). Cognitive style and literary regression: A study of student writers. Journal of Personality, 49(3), 337–348.

Kant, I. (1781/1967). Critique of pure reason, Tseko Torbov (Trans.). Sofia: Bulgarian Academy of Sciences Press [Кант, И. (1781/1967). Критика на чистия разум, Цеко Торбов (прев.). София, България: Издателство при Българската академия на науките (БАН)].

Kaufman, J. (2018). Finding meaning with creativity in the past, present, and future. Perspectives on Psychological Science, 13(6), 734-749.

Keller, J., Bless, H., Blomann, F., & Kleinböhl, D. (2011). Physiological aspects of flow experiences: Skills-demand-compatibility effects on heart rate variability and salivary cortisol. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 47, 849-852.

Knafo, D. (2002). Revisiting Ernst Kris’s Concept of Regression in the Service of the Ego in Art. Psychoanalytic Psychology, 19(1), 24-49.

Kraehenmann, R, Pokorny, D., Vollenweider, L., Preller, K. H., Pokorny, T., Seifritz, E., & Vollenweider, F. X. (2017). Dreamlike effects of LSD on waking imagery in humans depend on serotonin 2A receptor activation. Psychopharmacology (Berl), 234(13), 2031-2046.

Kris, E. (1952). Psychoanalytic explorations in art. New York: International Universities Press.

Latzel, E. (1957). The concept of ‘ultimate situation’ in Jaspers’ philosophy. In: Paul A. Schilpp (Ed.), The philosophy of Karl Jaspers (pp. 177-208). New York: Tudor Publishing Company.

Lefebre, L. (1957). GLOSSARY, Translations and definitions of terms used by Karl Jaspers. In: P. A. Schlipp (Ed.), The philosophy of Karl Jaspers (pp. XVI-XXIV). New York: Tudor Publishing Company.

Martindale, C. (1999). Biological bases of creativity. In: R. Sternberg (Ed.), Handbook of creativity (pp. 137-152. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Mechkov, K. (1970). Some basic principles of psychogenesis. In: G. Vekilov & G. Girginov (Eds.), Philosophical questions of biology and medicine Vol. 4 (pp. 94-116). Sofia: Meditsina i fizkultura. [Мечков, К. (1970). Някои основни принципи на психогенезата. В: Философски въпроси на биологията и медицината Том 4, Г. Векилов и Г. Гиргинов (ред.), сс. 94-116. София: Медицина и физкултура].

Mechkov, K. (1993). Psyche: Essence, structure, organization, disorganization. Veliko Tarnovo: Izdatelstvo “Pik” [Мечков, К. (1993). Психиката: Същност, структура, организация, дезорганизация. Велико Търново: Издателство „Пик“].

Mechkov, K. (1995). Medical psychology. Veliko Tarnovo: Izdatelstvo “Pik” [Мечков, К. (1995). Медицинска психология. Велико Търново: Издателство „Пик“].

Milev, V., & Mechkov, K. (1985). Medical psychology. Sofia: Meditsina i Fizkultura. [Милев, В. & Мечков, К. (1985). Медицинска психология. София: Медицина и физкултура].

Miron, R. (2012). Karl Jaspers: From Selfhood to Being. Amsterdam, New York: Value Inquiry Book Series, Rodopi.

Moneta, G. (2012). On the measurement and conceptualization of flow. In: Stefan Engeser (Ed.), Advances in flow research (pp. 23-50). New York: Springer.

Mundt, C. (2014). Jaspers’ concept of “limit situation”: Extensions and therapeutic applications. In: Thomas Fuchs et al. (Eds.), Karl Jaspers’ philosophy and psychopathology (pp. 169-178). New York, Heidelberg, Dordrecht, London: Springer Verlag.

Nakamura, J., & Csikszentmihalyi, M. (2002). The concept of flow. In: C. Snyder, & S. Lopez (Eds.), Handbook of positive psychology (pp. 89-105). New York: Oxford University Press.

Olson, A. (1979). Transcendence and hermeneutics: An interpretation of the philosophy of Karl Jaspers. The Hague, Boston, London: Martinus Nijhoff Publishers.

Peifer, C., Schulzb, A., Schächingerb, H., Baumannd, N., & Antonia, C. H. (2014). The relation of flow-experience and physiological arousal under stress — Can u shape it? Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 53, 62-69.

Peifer, C., Schächinger, H., Engeser, S., & Antoni, C. H. (2015). Cortisol effects on flow-experience. Psychopharmacology (Berl), 232(6), 1165-1173.

Silverman, L. (1965). Regression in the service of the Ego: A Case study. Journal of Projective Techniques and Personality Assessment, 29(2), 232-244.

Suler, J. (1980). Primary process thinking and creativity. Psychological Bulletin, 88(1), 144-165.

Tozman, T., & Peifer, C. (2016). Experimental paradigms to investigate flow-experience and its psychophysiology: Inspired from stress theory and research. In: Harmat L., Ørsted Andersen F., Ullén F., Wright J. & Sadlo G. (Eds.), Flow experience (pp. 329-350). Springer, Cham.

Vekilov, G. (1982). Dialectical materialism. Sofia: Meditsina i Fizkultura. [Векилов, Г. (1982). Диалектически материализъм. София: Медицина и физкултура].

© Center for Open Access in Science